The Use of Technology in Modern Criminal Investigations: illuminating the darkest corners of crime with digital ingenuity.”


In Recent years, the field of criminal investigation has evolved significantly due to the advancements in technology. The use of technology has revolutionized the way criminal investigations are conducted, from gathering evidence to analyzing and presenting it in court., law enforcement agencies now have more efficient and effective means to solve crimes and bring victims to justice With new tools and techniques. One of the key ways technology has impacted modern criminal investigations is through the use of digital evidence. With the rise of the digital age, criminals are increasingly using digital devices and platforms to commit crimes. This has created a vast amount of digital evidence that can be used by law enforcement agencies to investigate and solve crimes. Digital evidence includes data from cell phones, computers, social media, and other electronic devices. This evidence can provide crucial information such as location data, communication records, and financial transactions, which can help investigators establish a timeline of events and identify suspects. In addition to aiding investigations, technology has also improved the process of collecting and storing evidence. With the use of digital databases, law enforcement agencies can now store and access vast amounts of information, making it easier to cross-reference and link evidence to suspects. This has made the investigation process more efficient and has reduced the chances of errors and lost evidence, this article aims to unsderstand the use of technology in modern criminal investigation.


Due to the dynamic growth in the country and steep growth in the field of technology, it is important for the police and investigation authorities to adapt to the changing trends in crime investigation. With the changing world, crimes have also evolved and have taken a new form like cyberbullying, theft of money, data theft, ransomware, website spoofing, IoT hacking, etc. With the ever-increasing crimes in India coupled with such a low population-to-police ratio, it is necessary to have the technology to fill the complexities and make timely decisions. Information and Communication Technology is the method to provide sophisticated services by merging information technology and telecommunication. ICT is used to store, retrieve, analyze the data. It also includes a mobile phone, video conferencing, etc. These technologies are being used efficiently by the police for law enforcement and can be constantly improved for good governance. However, The new technology of crime mapping has been introduced and is being used by many departments especially the departments located in urban areas with huge population. Moreover, the use of technology has also improved the communication and collaboration between different law enforcement agencies. With the use of digital platforms and systems, investigators can now share information and coordinate efforts in real-time. This has proven to be crucial in cases that involve multiple jurisdictions or require the expertise of different agencies. However, the use of technology in criminal investigations also comes with its challenges. The vast amount of digital evidence and the complexity of forensic tools require investigators to have specialized training and skills. This has led to the need for ongoing training and education for law enforcement professionals to keep up with the rapid advancements in technology. Another challenge is the potential for the misuse of technology, such as the invasion of privacy or the mishandling of evidence. This highlights the importance of ethical guidelines and proper oversight in the use of technology in criminal investigations. 


The implementation of strong and efficient tools of tracking system, software and technology has played a significant role in making a difference in criminal justice, from capturing criminals to improved public safety. Latest technologies used for criminal investigations are:

  • Monitoring systems- GPS is a navigation system that allows officers to find the location of criminals from a device. Helps in sting operations and better investigation of police. Drones provide an aerial view of a place or scene where police can observe it from a distance. License plate scanning is another monitoring system used in criminal investigation. It enables the police to know if the vehicle is stolen or a warrant is issued to the driver.
  • Surveillance cameras- CCTV is a widely used technology that records and stores events which is very useful for the police in investigation and arrest of suspects.
  • Extensive database- recorded data such as DNA, fingerprints, background information and others are used in criminal investigation to bring out evidence and identify crime trends.
  • Facial recognition software- this technology matches faces of humans from digital evidence against the database of faces. This is the fastest and most efficient way to verify data compared to others like retina or fingerprint scans.
  • Forensics- electronic evidence can be examined by digital forensics. Biometrics such as palm prints, iris recognition, fingerprints, etc. are used to match people with criminal history. Forensics includes various technologies to bring out accurate results which are very useful in internal investigation of criminal as well as civil matters.
  • Electronic identification- a person can be identified by the police easily through a mobile number, PAN, bank account number, driving license, etc.
  • Rapid identification system- these are databases designed to help investigating officers in speedy access to criminal history of Individuals with basic search functions.


Yes, faster investigation is possible,There is a misconception that forensics is limited to only laboratories. Forensics are of great assistance while understanding the circumstances of death and collecting evidence. In the same way, digital forensics examines electronic evidence collected in the process of investigation. Both aspects of forensic involve a lot of technology for accurate results. These are useful not only in criminal matters but also in an internal investigation in civil matters as well. Electronic Identification is a method through which the police can identify a person easily. This identification can be done through a number of routes. It can be through mobile number, Permanent Account Number, bank account number, driving license, etc. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system that helps in location tracking. It can track the device and its information no matter where the device is located on earth. This can help police in sting operations and better investigations. Moreover,The Government of Uttar Pradesh has developed an app called Staqua which uses machine learning, deep learning, visual search, and face-recognition for assisting the Police department. This app helps in storing and carrying information about criminals. It also helps in identifying not only a criminal but also the gang members. Further, it provides for information retrieval during investigations. The startup has helped to solve more than 400 cases. The National Centre of Excellence in Technology for Internal Security has been set up by the Government in collaboration with IIT Bombay for developing technology and self-sufficiency in the internal security of the country. 


The use of technology can be of great help in fair trials absolurely,however It was also suggested by the former Chief Justice of India that legal aid, which is an essential part of a fair trial, means access to justice. Access to justice can only be truly achieved when not only law professionals but also the common mass understand their rights. This can be better achieved when legal literacy is preached through technology. He suggested an app so that education can touch masses. In conclusion, the use of technology in modern criminal investigations has significantly improved the capabilities of law enforcement agencies. It has made the investigation process more efficient, accurate, and faster, leading to a higher success rate in solving crimes. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the use of technology and protecting the rights of individuals. With proper training, oversight, and ethical guidelines, the use of technology can continue to revolutionize criminal investigations and help bring criminals to justice.


One of the main problems encountered in the use of technology in criminal investigations is the issue of data security and privacy. With the vast amount of data being collected and stored, there is a growing concern about how this information is being used, who has access to it, and how it is being protected from unauthorized access. Maintaining the delicate balance between using technology to solve crimes and safeguarding individual privacy rights remains a significant challenge for law enforcement agencies. Another issue that arises from the use of technology in criminal investigations is the digital divide. Not all law enforcement agencies have equal access to the latest technological tools and resources due to budget constraints or lack of training. This disparity can hinder the effectiveness of investigations and create unequal outcomes for different jurisdictions. Ensuring that all law enforcement agencies have access to the necessary technology and training is essential to promoting fairness and justice in the criminal justice system. Moreover, the rapid pace of technological advancements presents a continual challenge for law enforcement agencies. Criminals are constantly adapting and utilizing new technologies to commit crimes, such as cybercrimes, which require specialized skills and tools to investigate. Keeping up with these rapid changes and ensuring that investigators are equipped with the knowledge and resources to tackle emerging technologies is an ongoing challenge in modern criminal investigations.


Big data analytics has revolutionized criminal investigations, providing law enforcement agencies with powerful tools to analyze vast amounts of data and extract valuable insights. In today’s digital age, enormous volumes of data are generated daily from various sources, including social media, financial transactions, telecommunications, and IoT devices. Law enforcement agencies harness this data to uncover hidden connections, patterns, and trends that aid in solving crimes, identifying suspects, and preventing criminal activities. Advanced analytics techniques, such as machine learning and predictive modeling, enable investigators to sift through massive datasets quickly, flag suspicious behavior, and prioritize leads for further investigation. For example, social network analysis can reveal relationships between individuals involved in criminal activities, while financial transaction analysis can uncover money laundering schemes or illicit financial transactions. Additionally, geospatial analysis allows investigators to map crime hotspots, track the movement of suspects, and deploy resources effectively. By integrating disparate datasets and leveraging cutting-edge analytics tools, law enforcement agencies can gain actionable intelligence, enhance situational awareness, and make datadriven decisions in criminal investigations. However, the use of big data analytics in criminal investigations also raises ethical and privacy concerns, particularly regarding the collection, storage, and sharing of sensitive personal information. Therefore, it is imperative for law enforcement agencies to adhere to strict data protection regulations, ensure transparency in their investigative practices, and uphold the rights of individuals while harnessing the power of big data analytics to combat crime effectively.


The future of technological tools for criminal investigations is poised for significant advancements, driven by rapid technological innovation and evolving law enforcement needs. One prominent trend is the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms into investigative processes, enabling law enforcement agencies to analyze vast amounts of data more efficiently and derive actionable insights. Predictive analytics models will become increasingly sophisticated, allowing investigators to anticipate criminal activities, identify emerging threats, and allocate resources strategically. Moreover, advancements in biometric technologies, such as gait recognition and DNA analysis, will enhance the accuracy and reliability of suspect identification, aiding in the apprehension of perpetrators and the exoneration of innocent individuals. Additionally, the proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and the widespread adoption of smart city technologies will generate a wealth of digital evidence, ranging from sensor data to surveillance footage, providing investigators with rich sources of information to reconstruct crime scenes and track criminal behavior. Virtual and augmented reality technologies will revolutionize crime scene reconstruction and forensic analysis, enabling investigators to visualize complex scenarios and interact with digital evidence in immersive environments. Furthermore, blockchain technology holds promise for ensuring the integrity and authenticity of digital evidence, enhancing chain of custody procedures, and preventing tampering or manipulation of data. However, along with these advancements come challenges and ethical considerations, including concerns about data privacy, algorithmic bias, and the potential for misuse of surveillance technologies. Therefore, as technological tools continue to evolve, it is essential for law enforcement agencies to prioritize transparency, accountability, and adherence to legal and ethical standards to ensure that the benefits of innovation are balanced with the protection of individual rights and liberties. By leveraging emerging technologies responsibly and ethically, law enforcement agencies can enhance their investigative capabilities, improve public safety, and uphold the principles of justice in the digital age.


In conclusion, while technology has brought about much advancement in modern criminal investigations, it also presents a range of problems and challenges. Addressing issues such as data security, the digital divide, technological advancements, and digital evidence management is essential to harnessing the full potential of technology in solving crimes. By recognizing these issues and working towards solutions, law enforcement agencies can improve their capabilities and enhance the effectiveness of criminal investigations in the digital era.

“PRIME LEGAL is a full-service law firm that has won a National Award and has more than 20 years of experience in an array of sectors and practice areas. Prime legal fall into a category of best law firm, best lawyer, best family lawyer, best divorce lawyer, best divorce law firm, best criminal lawyer, best criminal law firm, best consumer lawyer, best civil lawyer.”

Article by :Sowmya.R


Impact of Technology on Access to Justice in India: Opportunities and Challenges.

Impact of Technology on Access to Justice in India: Opportunities and Challenges.
Technology and Law have pretty much developed in the present times. Back in the days it was very impractical to even think of having the hearings of the Court without seeing the concerned parties and counsels in person. As time passed, the Indian judiciary has joined hands with the technology to enhance the process of conducting Trials and delivering judgements. Though, the practicality of the same if questioned but the COVID pandemic, made all of us sit and realise the Technological innovations in legal system can indeed definitely be practically applied.
Key words:
e-courts, e-filing, technology, virtual court hearings, e-courts portal, e-payment, electronic display system (EDS), document management system (DMS), block-chain method.
In today’s fast-paced world technology and innovation have played a vital role in our lives, the Legal world is no exception to that. Legal technology or also called as legal tech/law tech, is been playing a significant role in the Indian legal system. The Indian judiciary also has been a guest to this present wave of technological advancements. Since, a very long time the Indian judiciary has been grappling with a significant backlog and pendency to litigation. According to the, National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) gives us a picture of the backlog of cases haunting India. There are about 4.38 crore cases lay pending before the Taluka courts and District while 60.9 lakh cases (60,90,891 cases) are pending before the High Courts. Thus, the backlog of cases have crossed the 5 crore mark with 5,00,39,981 cases pending before the various Courts/Tribunals across the Country as of June1st of 2023. The said issue being addressed through e-courts and Digital India. The Indian Judiciary is amalgamating technology into the traditional courts to reduce pendency and fasten the justice delivery.
Use of Technology in Justice Delivery Mechanism-
In India the relationship between law and technology has been growing rapidly and has gained quite the importance as innovative technologies have been changing the country’s justice delivery mechanism. The legal fraternity is also duly benefitted by the innovative technological entry into the Legal fora as the advent of technology enables us to access the case laws, legislation and legal commentary through these online platforms. The lawyers, through this method, have been able to communicate with their clients, stakeholders, co-counsel and thereby decreasing the in-person meetings. Technology, basically allows legal practitioners and also the judicial stakeholders to operate more effectively by making sure that the time-consuming activities like the document management, scheduling and legal research are addressed through technology.
Technology through various steps, enunciated below, has played key role in reducing the administrative costs, increasing the productivity, and further to develop the ability to manage the caseloads:
e-Courts Project
The e-courts machine Mode Project is a pan- India project, monitored and funded by the department of justice, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India for the District courts across the country. It has a vision to transform the Indian Judiciary by ICT (Information and communications technology) enablement of Courts.
The Development of e Courts:
e-courts have now become a new tool in order to access justice to the Indian Legal system. Back in the days we could not even comprehend court hearings without hearing the counsels and the parties concerned. Though the pandemic brought the world to a stand still but these technological innovations ensured that the court proceedings were carried out without hampering the judicial process be it hearing the parties thereby ensuring the essentials principles of natural justice. Indian e-courts ensure to provide efficient and transparent services to litigants. Given below are some of the initiatives:
1) Virtual court systems- In the said system, court proceedings are conducted virtually by means of video conferencing. This ensures easy access to justice and reduces the pendency of cases.
2) e-Courts portal- The e-Courts portal encompasses the interest of all the litigants, advocates, government agencies, police and citizens. In fact, this system is so helpful that being anywhere, anybody can access the portal and get the details of the cases as first-hand information.
3) e-filing- The facility of filing court cases electronically ensures benefits such as saving time and money, automatic digitization thereby reducing the paper consumption which is a necessary step, to be taken as an environmental cause. The step towards e filing reduces the physical hardship of being physically present before the Courts.
4) e-payment of court fees and fines- The ability to make online payments of court fees and fines reduces the need for carrying physical cash, stamps and cheques etc. thereby, integrating with the state’s specified vendors for convenience.
5) Court Management System (CMA): This is a web-based system that manages whole court process from case delivery to judgement that ensures easy flow of information across various stakeholders and departments.
6) Document Management System (DMS): In this system, the documents can be digitally saved from any location and anytime, thereby saving the physical spaces.
7) Electronic Display System (EDS): This system displays court procedures, such as case status, case lists and cause lists, on electronic screens around the court complex. This annihilates needless physical travel.
8) The Court Recording and Transcription System (CRTS): In this system, they use the records and transcribes as evidence, thereby reducing handwritten notetaking.
9) Use of AI and Machine Learning: Artificial learning and machine learning help in analyzing vast amounts of data, identifying patterns and predicting the outcomes which enhances efficiency of judicial delivery system for instance the SUVAS and SUPACE tools implemented by Supreme Court and High Courts.
10) Blockchain for Secure Record-Keeping: This technology basically helps in ensuring security and transparency of court records. The use of block chain method prevents the records from being tampered and ensures the court records are secured.

Challenges with Application of Emerging Technologies in the Judicial System:
1) Data security: As the data involved being quite the sensitive kind, it’s very important to keep the data secured.
2) Bias and discrimination: With emerging AI, there is quite the bias and discrimination within the algorithms which poses high risk in inequalities in judicial system.
3) Privacy concerns: With use of technology, there are high risks with privacy rights, which can result in violation of the private right of an individual.
4) Cost: The high costs involved in implementation of the technological reforms needs to be taken care of as the judicial systems may not have sufficient resources.
5) Lack of understanding: Many legal professionals may not have enough understanding towards the emerging technology which may result in inequalities in justice system.
Way Forward:
Data Privacy and Security: Technology heavily rely on data collection; hence it is important to consider that data collected and used endures security and privacy.
Accessibility: The judicial system must ensure that there are no barriers to the accessibility of data.
Transparency and Accountability: The judicial system should ensure that there is transparency and accountability with the emerging technology to ensure just and fair usage.
Training and Education: The judiciary to ensure that the lawyers, stakeholders and the judges are properly trained to keep in pace with the emerging technology.
In conclusion, this article basically talks about the way the Indian judicial system has developed in the present times with the advent of Technology. The way judiciary enhanced the court proceedings through the means of technology. Like, the e-filing, e-portal, e-payment etc. By this the court also ensured that there is accessibility and transparency to the court proceedings to its citizens. There are positive aspects to this but it also has certain negative aspects such as the technology can also increase the divide particularly for marginalized communities. This erodes the idea of equal justice and worsens the unequal allocation of legal services. The digital divide also negatively impacts attorneys, who are often neither technologically literate nor have access to digital tools and resources. This article gives a bird’s eye view to all the techno-legal developments.
“PRIME LEGAL is a full-service law firm that has won a national award and has more than 20 years of experience in an array of sectors and practice areas. Prime legal fall into a category of best law firm, best lawyer, best family lawyer, best divorce lawyer, best divorce law firm, best criminal lawyer, best criminal law firm, best consumer lawyer, best civil lawyer”.
Written by- Parvathy P.V.

1) www.drshtiias.com
2) hindupost.in
3) organiser.org
4) www.linkedin.com


Deepfakes and AI : How the government plans to execute a regulatory framework as per the IT rules and IT Act,2000


Deepfakes are manipulated versions of pictures of video where techniques like morphing is used to falsely pretend as someone else. It is a tool of misrepresentation which has an abundance of consequences behind it. Recently, many popular personalities have become victim of the deep fake use.

Currently, there are no concentrated regulations to stop these types of innovations. One of the primary legislations for preventing and prohibiting deepfakes currently in India is the IT Act, 2000. It is under the scope of violation of privacy to circulate or publish of a person’s images in mass media[1].

However, the IT act is not sufficient to tackle the specific need for a Deepfake or AI regulation in the country.

Existing Regulation :

The IT Act, 2000[2] and IT Rules[3] specify provisions for the violation of privacy against an individual and also the appropriate punishments.

Punishments :

Section 66A provides that any person who sends offensive or false or misleading information through message is punishable with 3 years along with fine.

Section 66C of the Act provides that if any person does an act which impersonates another person through signature or unique identification feature, shall be punished for 3 years.

Section 66E provides for the violation of privacy against any person. It includes publishing or captures obscene images without consent, shall be punished for three years alongside a fine of upto Rs.2,00,000.

The punishment fir publishing any form of obscene material shall be punished under Section 67 and Section 67A provides punishment for publishing any sexually explicit act. Section 67B punishes any person for transmitting or publishing any obscene media of children.

IT rules :

Rule 3(1)(b) gives directions to intermediaries. Intermediaries are the controllers of data and stores data for their internet application or websites.

Intermediaries are defined under Section 2(w) as:

“―intermediary, with respect to any particular electronic records, means any person who on behalf of another person receives, stores or transmits that record or provides any service with respect to that record and includes telecom service providers, network service providers, internet service providers, web-hosting service providers, search engines, online payment sites, online-auction sites, online-market places and cyber cafes”

Rule 3(1)(b) states that :

No intermediary shall host, display, modify, publish, transmit, store, update or share any information that :

  • Belongs to another person
  • The content is obscene, invasive of bodily privacy of another person, encourages money laundering etc.
  • Such content is harmful to a child
  • It infringes any intellectual property
  • It misleads the viewer about the origin of the message or communicates any misinformation through its interface.
  • Impersonates another person
  • Is a public threat to the security and sovereignty of India.

However, the IT Act provides that the intermediaries will not be liable under Section 79(1) of the Act :

Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force but subject to the provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3), an intermediary shall not be liable for any third party information, data, or communication link made available or hosted by him.”

MeitY Advisory notification :

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology issued an advisory notification governing the intermediaries to follow the IT rules in prevention of circulating deepfakes.

The advisory notification mentions that the users needs to be specifically mentioned about the type of content which is prohibited under the IT rules. The communication should be in precise language and must be easily interpreted. The ministry also advised to set up regular reminders to the users on the prohibited content, for example during every login or while registering as a new account in the interface[4].

The users must be informed about the penal provisions attracted to the violation of Rule 3(1)(b) of the IT rules. The penal laws attracting Rule 3(1)(b) are the IPC and the IT Act. It specifies that in the terms and conditions of the application, the intermediaries must clearly highlight that intermediaries/platforms are under obligation to report legal violations to the law enforcement agencies under the relevant Indian laws applicable to the context[5].

 The advisory also emphasised on the Rule 3(1)(b)(v) which states that :

Any content which :

“deceives or misleads the addressee about the origin of the message or knowingly and intentionally communicates any misinformation or information which is patently false and untrue or misleading in nature” shall be removed by the intermediary as a part of their duty.

Furthermore, it added that It is the responsibility of platforms to make reasonable measures to stop users from hosting, displaying, uploading, altering, publishing, sending, storing, updating, or distributing any content that is forbidden on digital intermediaries or information connected to any of the 11 mentioned user harms[6].

Does AI and deepfake need separate legislation :

The IT Act and IT rules no doubt provide an extensive scope for covering AI and deepfake violations. However, the regulations are ex-post regulations. It means that the scope for preventing these issues beforehand is not covered by the Act. The Act and the Rules only provide for the remedy after the damage has been done.

Innovations and new technological advancements is not the drawback of AI and deepfakes, it is the misuse of such which is causing a huge gap between privacy and technological advancement. The mechanism of “cure after damage” should be changed.

It is advised that the technological framework should be of ex-ante regulation which follows the mechanism of preventing a wrong to happen.

It was also stated that the MEITY has no legal enforcement and therefore the big companies and intermediaries are not legally binding to follow the advice [7].

Conclusion :

Things are not what they seem. Especially with the developing technology, it is hard to identify the origin of a particular media format. It is essential for a country like India which has a huge number of internet users to have specific legislation which extends the scope of regulating artificial intelligence and deepfakes.

It is important to recognize the need for artificial intelligence in the existing work culture of the country, however, it should not be done at the expense of violation of one’s right to privacy which is protected under the Constitution along with the new DPDP Act, 2023

“PRIME LEGAL is a full-service law firm that has won a National Award and has more than 20 years of experience in an array of sectors and practice areas. Prime legal fall into a category of best law firm, best lawyer, best family lawyer, best divorce lawyer, best divorce law firm, best criminal lawyer, best criminal law firm, best consumer lawyer, best civil lawyer.”

Written by- Sanjana Ravichandran

[1] Abha Shah and Nitika Nagar, The deepfake Dilemma : Navigating truth and deception in Today’s digital era, MONDAQ (Dec 14, 2023) https://www.mondaq.com/india/new-technology/1401876/the-deepfake-dilemma-navigating-truth-and-deception-in-todays-digital-era#:~:text=Deepfake%20technology%20refers%20to%20a,of%20deep%20learning%20and%20fake.

[2] The information Technology Act, 2000 (Act. No 21 of 2000)

[3] The Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021, G.S,R. 139(E), published in the Gazette of India.

[4] Deep Fake issue : IT ministry tells social media platforms to comply with rules or face action, MINT (Dec 26,2023) https://www.livemint.com/technology/tech-news/govt-ministry-deepfake-advisory-content-not-permitted-it-rules-must-be-clearly-communicated-to-users-11703598291391.html

[5]PIB Delhi  MeitY issues advisory to all intermediaries to comply with existing IT rules, PIB

( 26 DEC 2023 6:34PM) https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1990542#:~:text=The%20directive%20specifically%20targets%20the,clearly%20and%20precisely%20to%20users.

[6] India: MeitY set to introduce regulations on deepfakes, ONE TRUST DATAGUIDANCE (Nov 23, 2023) https://www.dataguidance.com/news/india-meity-set-introduce-regulations-deepfakes

[7] Aaratrika Bhaumik, Regulating deepfakes and generative AI in India | Explained, THE HINDU (Dec 4, 2023) https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/regulating-deepfakes-generative-ai-in-india-explained/article67591640.ece